Unfortunately, the access to clean water and sanitation not available for every person in the world.That is why the goal №6 of Sustainable Development Goals so important tasks for the United Nations, and the improvement of the situation with water and sanitation facilities in the world.
One of the global problems in the world is the lack of clean water and sanitation services. Around 2,2 billion people don’t have the access to drinking water. For these reasons, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development include the goal №6 “Clean Water and Sanitation”, where is the main task to ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. The top countries without access to the clean water are Ethiopia, Papua New Guinea, The Republic of Chad, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, United Republic of Tanzania, Somalia, Pakistan, India. Unfortunately, the list with the country without basic drinking water and sanitation services is more longer.
What causes a lack of access to clean water?
There are a lot of reasons that make an impact on drinking water and sanitation facilities. I would like to mention one of the basic reasons. For sure one the problem is the lack of good governmental management and the development of sustainable infrastructure in countries. Another fact linked the people’s affiliation which based on ethnicity, gender, social status and the high cost of water. The weather changes such as drought affect clean water supplies while flooding can pollute clean water sources.
What kind of the consequences of a lack of water and sanitation services?
All people have the right to access to water. Unfortunately, there are people for whom the possibility to use clean water is a daily challenge. For example, the way to get clean water can be more than 40 minutes. Moreover, the consequences of using unsafe water put people health and life under the risk. Lack of clean water and sanitation is one of the most common causes of death among children under 5 years of age. To be more precise, the number of children who die because diarrheal diseases are about 801,000 children per year, it is mean, more than 800 children die every day from diarrheal diseases due to lack of hygienic conditions. A lot of tropical diseases closely linked to a lack of sanitary. There is an example of the disease such as Guinea Worm Disease, Buruli Ulcer, Trachoma, and Schistosomiasis, etc.
What is the main target of the goal №6?
The United Nations has been created the list of the goals that supposed to come into life at a specific time.
- By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all
- By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations
- By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally
- By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity
- By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate
- By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes
- By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies
- Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management
If people will ignore the problem and do not try to improve infrastructure and management, millions of people will die every year. Biodiversity and ecosystems will deteriorate further, undermining prosperity and undermining efforts to create a more sustainable future. It is important that every person, even you can contribute to the improvements:
-Try to learn more about the importance of water
– Do not contaminate it with trash and toxic chemicals
-Try to save water while brushing your teeth, washing and cleaning
– Fix the Water Leak
– Help and protect people’s rights to clean water and sanitation
By Tetiana Gavrilenko
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Global WASH Fast Facts. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, April 11, 2016. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/global/wash_statistics.html
Lifewater International. How Many Countries Don’t Have Clean Water? Top 10 List and Facts. Clean Water Community Health, June 4, 2020. Available at https://lifewater.org/blog/how-many-countries-dont-have-clean-water-top-10-list-and-facts/ United Nations. Sustainable Development Goal. Available at https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/water-and-sanitation